Rory is introduced in "The Eleventh Hour" (2010) as a nurse in a coma ward and the "sort of boyfriend" of new companion Amelia Pond (Karen Gillan). He is shocked to meet Amy's 'imaginary' "Raggedy Doctor" - the Eleventh Doctor (Matt Smith), whom he instantly recognises from Amy's childhood stories. Two years later, Amy absconds on the eve of their wedding to travel with the Doctor, whom at the end of an initial travelling period she tries to seduce. In response, the Doctor takes Amy and Rory to 1580s Venice to repair and strengthen the couple's relationship; at the end of the episode Rory joins them as a travelling companion. In "Amy's Choice", in a shared realistic dream where he is a doctor married to a pregnant Amy, he tells her with his dying breath to look after their baby, which causes Amy to realise how much she loves him. Rory travels with the Doctor and Amy until Series 5, Episode 9 "Cold Blood", in which he is shot dead by a Silurian after saving the Doctor and then absorbed by a crack in time and space, erasing him from existence and from Amy's memory. Rory appears in "The Pandorica Opens", as a Roman soldier in 102C.E., but is revealed to be an Auton with Rory's memories. He attempts to fight his Auton programming, but unwillingly shoots Amy. In the Series 5 finale episode,"The Big Bang", the duplicate Rory preserves Amy in stasis using a futuristic prison called the Pandorica, watching over her for almost two millennia. He becomes known as the "Last Centurion", guarding the Pandorica wherever it is taken. The Auton Rory assists the Doctor, Amy, and River Song (Alex Kingston) in saving the universe from the explosion that caused the cracks in time. Restored to his original timeline but still possessing memories of his Auton existence, Rory marries Amy. They continue traveling with the Doctor who allows them a honeymoon, which they are said to be on in both The Sarah Jane Adventures serial Death of the Doctor and the Christmas special "A Christmas Carol".
Series 6 premiere "The Impossible Astronaut" (2011) begins with Amy and Rory living back on Earth when they are contacted by the Doctor. In Utah they witness the Doctor dying in his relative future at the hands of a mysterious assassin. "The Almost People" reveals that Amy has been kidnapped and replaced with a Flesh avatar; the Doctor disintegrates this Avatar after concluding this, just as the real Amy goes into labour on board a space ship. Amy gives birth to their daughter Melody Pond, between "The Almost People" and "A Good Man Goes To War"; Madame Kovarian (Frances Barber) and the Silence plan to raise her as a weapon against the Doctor because she has been born with Time Lord-like abilities. Dressed in his centurion armor, he faces down a space fleet of Cybermen to learn Amy's location, and assists the Doctor in assembling an army to rescue her. Though Amy and Rory are distressed that they were unable to save Melody from being kidnapped by Madam Kovarian, River appears at the episode's climax and reveals to Amy and Rory that she is their daughter, Melody. "Let's Kill Hitler" reveals that Melody went on to become Amy and Rory's childhood friend, Mels, so that she might one day meet and kill the Doctor. As Amy had initially assumed Rory was gay due to his lack of interest in other women, a teenage Mels (Nina Toussaint-White) had been the one to inform Amy of Rory's affections. On 21st century earth, Mels hijacks the TARDIS and directs it to 1938 where she is shot by Hitler (Albert Welling) and regenerates into River Song. They learn she is the assailant they saw kill the Doctor in his future. At the episode's conclusion, they decide to let the adult River make her own way in life and continue their travels. Rory features prominently in "The Girl Who Waited", where he is confronted with the horrible consequences time travel has had on a version of his wife, and in "The God Complex" he is the only one of the TARDIS crew who is not hunted by the creature that feeds on faith because of Rory's rational nature and lack of personal faith. The Doctor eventually realises the danger he is exposing his friends to and returns Amy and Rory to Earth, giving them a house and a car as leaving presents. The Doctor glimpses the couple in "Closing Time", some time after he left them. The pair appear in his life once again when River creates an alternate reality by refusing to kill the Doctor, and witness the pair marry in the alternate universe before returning to the established course of events where the Doctor once again appears to die. Once reality is restored, however, they are visited by their daughter River, who tells them the secret that the Doctor is still alive, and that the version of him that died had been a robot duplicate. Though he wishes the world to believe he is dead, the Doctor joins Rory and Amy two years later for Christmas dinner in the Christmas special "The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe".
Series seven opener "Asylum of the Daleks" (2012) establishes early on that Amy and Rory are set to divorce. When the Daleks kidnap the Doctor to go on a mission for them, they also kidnap Rory and Amy on the day they are about to sign their divorce papers because they know the Doctor works better with companions. On mission, the Doctor engineers a reconciliation between the two. The two discuss their feelings for each other. It is revealed Amy left Rory because she has been infertile since "A Good Man Goes to War", and knew he wanted children. The Doctor subsequently embarks on sporadic journeys with the Ponds; Rory is said to be 31 years old at the time of "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship". They rejoin him as permanent companions prior to their last adventure in "The Angels Take Manhattan". In this story, Rory is sent back to 1930s New York by a Weeping Angel, where he encounters River, and is tracked there by the Doctor and Amy. He finds himself repeatedly the victim of Angel attacks—repeatedly dislocating him in space and time—and discovers he is in an Angel "battery farm", where they intend to trap him until he dies of old age. Rory even encounters his dying older self there. Amy and Rory jump from a building to create a paradox and destroy the Angels, but one survives and sends Rory back in time. Amy chooses to let it send her back in time as well, and due to the massive paradox the Doctor can never reunite with them. From a tombstone he learns that Rory died at age 82, and Amy at 87. The website-only epilogue "P.S." later reveals that Rory and Amy adopted a son, in 1946, and named him Anthony Brian Williams. His middle name was named after Rory's father, Brian, to whom Rory sent a letter in "P.S.".